USDA – US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/news/release/resources/gallery/basketmaker-ash-log-submergence-kills-eab/
Submergence of black ash logs to control emerald ash borer and preserve wood for American Indian basketmaking
First published: 27 June 2015 https://doi.org/10.1111/afe.12122
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- Indigenous artisans in the Great Lakes region rely on the ring‐porous property of black ash Fraxinus nigra Marshall (Oleaceae), which allows annual layers of xylem to be easily separated to make baskets that are important economic resources and vessels of culture.
- The emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is threatening North America’s ash resource, including black ash and this centuries‐old art form, resulting in grave concern about the availability of black ash trees for basketmaking and about movement of black ash (along with A. planipennis) from areas where it is cut to lands where it is pounded and split to make baskets.
- We evaluated the traditional practice of storing black ash logs submerged in water as a possible method for killing within‐tree life stages of A. planipennis at the same time as preserving the wood’s value for basketmaking.
- Black ash trees infested with overwintering A. planipennis larvae were felled and cut into 60‐cm bolts in 2010 and in 2011. These were submerged in a river for different lengths of time and, after treatment, placed into rearing tubes to determine survival and adult emergence, or dissected within 24 h to determine larval mortality, and then pounded and peeled into splints to assess colour and pliability.
- In 2010, all A. planipennis larvae had died and no adults emerged from logs submerged in spring for 10 weeks or longer, whereas some larvae survived and adults emerged from logs submerged for up to 9 weeks.
- In 2011, submergence for 18 weeks during winter or 14 weeks in spring resulted in complete mortality of A. planipennis larvae and no emergence of adults at the same time as still preserving wood quality for basketmaking.
From their website:
While treaties between Indigenous peoples and the United States affect virtually every area in the USA, there is as yet no official list of all the treaties. The US National Archives holds 374 of the treaties, where they are known as the Ratified Indian Treaties. Here you can view them for the first time with key historic works that provide context to the agreements made and the histories of our shared lands.
Known as the Viens Commission, this publication as well as the report’s summary version and the appendices, are available on the Commission’s website at: www.cerp.gouv.qc.ca
The Final Report of the Viens Commission contains 142 recommendations.
I – The Failure of National Policy. Cherokee Education, Case Study. The effects of imposed white control.